Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica   
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Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica
1/2010

Content/Obsah

AGATA BUCHWAŁ - MATEUSZ ROGOWSKI: 
The methods of preventing trail erosion on the examples of intensively used footpaths in the Tatra and the Babia Gora National Parks
   
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HALINA KACZMAREK: 
Development of the shore zone of the Jeziorsko Reservoir (the Warta River, Central Poland)
 
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JAN PACINA: 
Comparison of approximation methods for partial derivatives of surfaces on regular grids
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ALENA PETRVALSKÁ:
Morfometrická analýza závrtov na príklade Jasovskej planiny (Slovenský kras) 
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ANNA BUCAŁA:
Morphological role of floods in the shaping of stream channels in the Gorce Mountains (exemplified by Jaszcze and Jamne stream valleys) 
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BŘETISLAV BALATKA - PHILIP L. GIBBARD - JAN KALVODA:
Evolution of the Sázava Valley in the Bohemian Massif
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Významné životné jubileum RNDr. Antona Droppu, CSc.
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Významné životné jubileum doc. RNDr. Zdenka Hochmutha, CSc.
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Abstracts/Abstrakty

Agata Buchwał, Mateusz Rogowski:
The methods of preventing trail erosion on the examples of intensively used footpaths
in the Tatra and the Babia Gora National Parks

Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica, 10, 2010, 1, 7 - 15.
6 figs., 21 refs.

Hiking impact has a great influence on the mountain environment and is a big concern for managers of protected areas. Most of negative effects of trampling, such as soil erosion and vegetation loss, result in a permanent trail erosion and relief transformations. The study presents the existing and possible ways of mitigation of trail deterioration and methods of theirs maintenance on the example of two popular footpaths located in the Tatra and in the Babia Góra National Parks. Authors present four groups of trail maintenance practices, namely: trails barriers, drainage structures, vegetation protection and supplementary structures. Prevention of trails erosion can be achieved by preparing theirs surface and application of drainage structures. Application of trails maintenance practices should be preceded by complex geomorphic mapping in different weather seasons.
Key Words: Tatra Mts., Babia Góra Mt., trampling impact, trail maintenance, anti-erosion development

 

Halina Kaczmarek:
Development of the shore zone of the Jeziorsko Reservoir (the Warta River, Central Poland)
Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica, 10, 2010, 1, 16 - 24.
6 figs., 1 tab., 18 refs.

The Jeziorsko Reservoir was artificially created between 1986 and 1992 on the Warta river (Central Poland, Fig. 1). It is characterised by cyclic high water level fluctuations, which reach up to 5 metres. At the maximum water level period its length equals 16 km, capacity amounts to 202.3 million m3, and the shoreline length reaches 44.3 km. At the minimum water level period on the reservoir, from December to February, the reservoir area decreases from 42.3 to 19.6 km2; i.e. 54 % of its area is periodically drained. The shore zone of the reservoir develops in quaternary deposits (clays, sands, silts), locally in the Pliocene class. The reservoir shore zone is undergoing an intensive transformation phase. 64 % of the reservoir natural shores is active (BANACH and GROBELSKA 2003): 56 % are abrasive and 8 % accumulative. The abrasive shores develop with the contribution of mass movements. The sliding and slump of the material occurs here. Locally slides developed here. In order to estimate the rate and direction of the changes occurring within the reservoir shore zone during the entire period of the reservoir exploitation a two-kilometre part of its eastern shore has been designated (Fig. 3). A comparative analysis of the photogrammetric (from 1991 and 2001) and cartographic materials has been carried out for the selected part. The analysis has been supplemented with the field measurements of the present tempo of the cliff edge retreat including the DGPS-description of its position. During the entire exploitation period of the Jeziorsko Reservoir, 1991 – 2009, in individual profiles the cliff edge has moved from 4.6 to 25.1 m i.e. from 0.26 up to 1.39 m annually, av. 1 m a year. In the first analysed period of the reservoir functioning, 1991-2004, the recession rate amounted from 0.35 to 1.63 m annually, whereas in 2004-2009 it oscillated from 0.26 up to 1.28 m. At present the rate of the cliff movement equals from 0.1 up to 0.3 m a year, locally it reaches 1 m a year.
Key words: water reservoir, fluctuations, shore zone, mass movements

 

Jan Pacina:
Comparison of approximation methods for partial derivatives of surfaces on regular grids
Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica, 10, 2010, 1, 25 - 32.
4 figs., 4 tabs., 13 refs.

In many GIS is implemented the approximation of partial derivatives of the 1st and the 2nd order. These derivatives are further used for computation of surfaces of derived morphometrical variables as slope, aspect and different types of curvatures. In geomorphologic researche are often required surfaces of derived morphometrical variables of the 3rd order. It is impossible to approximate the partial derivatives of the 3rd order with sufficient quality by tools offered in a common GIS. In this paper is presented and tested a method for this approximation fulfilling the accuracy requirements. 
Key words: partial derivatives of the 3rd order, approximation, GmIS, morphometrical variables

 

Alena Petrvalská:
Morphometric analysis of dolines on Jasovská plateau example (Slovak karst)
Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica, 10, 2010, 1, 33 - 44.
13 figs., 4 tabs., 17 refs.

Morphometric study of dolines enables quantitative analyses of karst environment. Measuring of morphometric parameters in karst area is possible through field survey, study of aerial photos and topographical maps. This work is time and economy consuming. Also mathematical-statistical treatment of the consequent data is difficult. Geometrical attributes of dolines are numerous. Some of them speak about whole karst area, some only about dolines. Our field mapping was from 2005 – 2009 and we found 58 dolines. By all this dolines we measured and counted all possible parameters. The main goal of this paper is to present possibility of morphometry and data assimilation by study of origin and age of dolines and karst area. Many of these parameters can help us with explanation of genesis of dolines. Elongation ratios can show us direction of fractures and breaks. Asymmetry of dolines and slopes depends on microclimatic conditions (temperatures, radiation, rainfall).
Key words: karst geomorphology, doline, morphometry, measurable parameters, countable parameters, Slovak karst

 

Anna Bucała:
Morphological role of floods in the shaping of stream channels in the Gorce Mountains
(exemplified by Jaszcze and Jamne stream valleys)
Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica, 10, 2010, 1, 45 - 54.
7 fig., 27 refs.

The article describes the morphological role of downpours in the shaping of valley bottoms in the Gorce Mountains, exemplified by the Jaszcze and the Jamne stream valleys during the rainfalls that took place in 1997 and 2008. The results of the flood from the first decade of July 1997 were specified on the basis of air photos analysis. On the other hand, in July 2008 direct observations of rainfall and its effects were conducted. Geomorphological mapping has shown that changes in the Jamne stream channel were more significant than those in the Jaszcze stream valley due to lower forest cover and denser drainage network. The results were compared with other streams in the Gorce Mountains.        
Key words: channel processes, floods, Gorce Mountains, the Jamne and the Jaszcze stream valleys

 

Břetislav Balatka, Philip L. Gibbard, Jan Kalvoda:
Evolution of the Sázava Valley in the Bohemian Massif

Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica, 10, 2010, 1, 55 - 76.
14 figs, 2 tabs., 41 refs.

The Sázava River course and catchment were initiated, in a form similar to the present one, during younger periods of the Neogene. The main drives towards the Sázava drainage reunification were archlike uplift of the present watershed area between the Sázava River and the Labe River during the Upper Miocene to Pliocene. During the Pliocene, the Sázava flowed to the west, in a large vale-shaped valley deepened into a tectonically and denudationally deformed Palaeogene planation surface, as well as into lower Neogene planation levels. The Quaternary cutting of the Sázava valley to an average depth of 70 – 90 m (in the lowest course up to 105 m and in the upper segment about 50 m) was induced by an epeirogenetic uplift of the Bohemian Massif. The typically developed incised meanders and bends were formed mostly in the Middle Pleistocene. Height conditions of the Sázava river terraces are shown in Tab. 1 and comparison of the Sázava system with terrace systems of the Vltava River and the Labe River as well as chronostratigraphical correlation with the North European stratigraphical classification of the Quaternary is given in Tab. 2. According to the current stratigraphical scheme of the Quaternary, the entire Sázava terraces´ system was formed mostly to the Middle and Late Pleistocene, that is to the period from the “Cromerian Complex” to the Weichselian stages. Erosional stages, before accumulation of terrace I, fall in the end of the Early Pleistocene. Older levels of fluvial sediments, occupying a still higher morphological position in the studied areas of the Bohemian Massif and up to now classified as Pliocene, have thus been stratigraphically to be shifted to the Early Pleistocene.
Key words: landform evolution, fluvial sediments, Quaternary, Bohemian Massif, the Sázava River