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Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica


The use of the aerial and ground photogrammetry in the Jeziorsko Reservoir shore zone monitoring (the Warta River, Central Poland)
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Tématické mapy založené na digitálním modelu reliéfu
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Koncepce „geomorphosites” jako jedna z možností hodnocení geomorfologických lokalit
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Possibilities of automated georelief segmentation for the requirements of Geomorphologic information system (GmIS) 
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Intensity of Aeolian Processes in Poland (Review of Literature) 
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The land use changes in 20th century and their geomorphological implications in lowland agricultural area (Voderady, Trnavská tabuľa Table Plain, Slovakia)
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Vývoj názorov na vznik a genézu zarovnaných povrchov Západných Karpát 
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Určovanie geomorfologickej hodnoty hornín metódou Schmidt Hammer test v južnej časti pohoria Žiar
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Halina Kaczmarek, Sebastian Tyszkowski:
The use of the aerial and ground photogrammetry in the Jeziorsko Reservoir shore zone monitoring (the Warta River, Central Poland)
Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica, 9, 2009, 2, 7 - 12.
2 figs., 9 refs.

The Jeziorsko Reservoir was created between 1986-1992 on the Warta River, and it is one of the largest reservoirs on the Polish lowlands. The reservoir is 16 km long and its capacity exceeds 202.3 mln m3, the coast line has over 44.3 km. The banks are built with Quaternary glacial sediments (tills, sands and clays), and in a few places with Pliocene clays. Since 1992, when the filling was completed, the coast line has started the evolution of accumulation, abrasion and erosion processes. The high water level fluctuations during the exploitation of the reservoir amount to 5 m·y-1. Additionally, they intensify the natural coast transformations. The main goal of the researchers is to create a model of the coastal line evolution on the reservoir high water fluctuations. The paper aims at presenting the contemporary research methods based on the Geographical Information Systems (GIS), which may be used for supporting and analyzing the morphodynamic processes (geomorphological and fluvial) of reservoirs. Due to the fact there had been no earlier research, it was necessary to use a method which would give a competent quality and credibility measure of the changes. Authors have aimed to reconstruct the conditions of the bank dynamics since 1986. The following cartographic and photogrammetric materials were used: a topographic maps at a scale of 1:5000, 1:10000 aerial photographs taken in 1991 and 2004 and an orthophotomap from 2005 at 1:5000 scale. The ground photogrammetry was used to record the current processes in the coastal zone such as mass movements (topples, landslides) and bank erosion. Other data from field studies were collected by means of the Global Positioning System (GPS). The changes in the reservoir coastal zone detected on the aerial photographs were mainly situated in the highest bank zone. The ground photogrammetry is being used for current coast and abrasion monitoring. Images are working as stereopairs, are taken for stereoscopic analysis and as individually for the seasonal metric measurement. Thanks to the use of the GIS, the achieved horizontal mean accuracy was below 0.5 m for photogrammetry and 0.3-1.0 m for ground photogrammetry. At present, the database makes use of a mobile as well as a desktop GIS.
Key Words: photogrammetry, water reservoir, monitoring


Jaromír Kolejka, David Káňa, Vladimír Plšek, Martin Klimánek,Vladislav Navrátil, Jaroslav Svoboda:
Thematic maps derived from digital elevation model
Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica, 9, 2009, 2, 13 - 27.
11 figs., 3 tabs., 13 refs.

DEM represents an important data source for various thematic maps useful for the scientific and applied landscape research. There are the traditional DEM derivates as shadowed map, elevation (hypsometric) map, slope and aspect maps presented in the paper. More advanced maps as outputs of hydrological and soil erosion modeling are demonstrated. Other maps interesting from the geography viewpoint as the map of relief energy, terrain ventilation, energy of unitary water course, wind field model and the temperature field model extrapolated from climatic station data are added. Some suggestions for DEM derivates application are discussed.
Key words: DEM derivates, hypsometry, slope, aspect, relief energy, run-off model, soil erosion model, terrain ventilation, energy of unitary water course, wind speed and direction field, temperature field model


Lucie Kubalíková:
The „geomorphosites“ approach as one of tools for geomorphological localities assessment
Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica, 9, 2009, 2, 28 - 36.
2 figs., 3 tabs., 23 refs.

The concept of geomorphosites is used for an evaluation of geomorphologically interesting and valuable landforms or wider landscapes. The main aim of this article is to present basic facts about this concept, its definitions and methodology. Besides, the article offers an example (a block accumulation) from the Podyjí National Park and tries to propose some management measures for the locality. 
Key words: geomorphosites, evaluation of geomorphologic locality, The Podyjí National Park, Dyje valley, block accumulations


Jan Pacina:
Possibilities of automated georelief segmentation for the requirements of Geomorphologic information system (GmIS)
Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica, 9, 2009, 2, 37 - 49.
15 figs., 16 refs.

Four different algorithms based on searching for discontinuities in fields of derived morphometric characteristics were implemented and tested for automatic delimitation of boundaries of elementary forms of georelief. The best results came from an algorithm based on the Canny edge detector and this was used for further testing. This algorithm produces segments of the boundaries of elementary forms. In this paper strict rules are specified for delimiting the areas of elementary forms from these segments. Application of the Canny-based algorithm should use data smoothed to reduce the density of edges detected. Ways for creating suitable surfaces are compared here.
Key words: GmIS, elementary forms, automatic delimitation of elementary form boundaries, georelief segmentation, smoothing


Jolanta Pełka-Gościniak:
Intensity of Aeolian Processes in Poland (Review of Literature)
Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica, 9, 2009, 2, 50 - 56.
1 fig., 1 tab., 45 refs.

Present-day aeolian processes can be divided into processes happening under natural conditions (in Poland at seashore, in valleys of large rivers and in mountains above the upper forest boundary) and in cultural landscapes (agricultural, industrial and urbanised landscapes as well as in deforested lands). These processes also occur in open-mined excavations, at plough lands and in mountainous areas of intensified tourist traffic. They happen during strong winds of velocities above 5 m/s, most often 10 - 15 m/s, and they are observed during the whole year, especially in autumn and winter. Contemporary processes caused by wind are responsible for the accumulation of series of aeolian deposits of different thickness and range, and for the present shaping of aeolian landforms. Deflation processes occur in subnival belt of the Tatra Mts. in areas of intensified tourist traffic. They can also be considered to be one of the most important processes modelling dividing ranges. Deposition of blown sands also follows behind barriers in aerodynamical shadow or on meadows in lowlands. It often causes the covering up of draining ditches, roads, cereal crops and meadows. Present-day aeolian processes also influence periodically uncovered sandy horizons in the neighbourhood of artificial water reservoirs. The intensity of aeolian processes is very important from the geomorphological point of view because of its effects (e.g. permanent changes in morphology, large air pollution, covering of plough lands, the occurrence of dust storms and black winters). The occurrence of intensive aeolian processes on dumps is very arduous and often very harmful for the neighbouring environment. The paper is an attempt to present the known data on intensity of aeolian processes in Poland on the base of accessible literature. It appears that investigations on the intensity of processes caused by wind are accidental and estimated for the whole country, but even so they do indicate the wide range of the process. For example the average RAP intensity of aeolian processes in the agricultural landscape amounts to 300 tons/km2/year (maximum values - 10 000 — 12 000 tons/km2/year (the Carpathians, Lublin Upland)). Unfortunately, there is the lack of methodological approach to this problem and applying of uniform methods and measures to obtain the objective and comparable character of research. Presently there is the necessity to convert between different measure units.        
Key words: aeolian processes, intensity, Poland


Anna Smetanová , Miroslav Kožuch, Jozef Čerňanský:
The land use changes in 20th century and their geomorphological implications in lowland agricultural area (Voderady, Trnavská tabuľa Table Plain, Slovakia)

Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica, 9, 2009, 2, 57 - 63.
3 figs, 26 refs.

The role of land use changes in acceleration of erosion in agricultural areas is widely recognised. The modifications of landscape structure and land use practices in the 20th century led to significant soil degradation and widening of eroded areas (including so-called bright patches) in Danube Lowland. Lowering of soil profiles and uncovering of maternity rock are important markers of relief re-modelation through erosion. We used aerial photographs and orthophotomaps from two time horizons (1949, 2004) to evaluate the changes of landscape structure and the extent of eroded areas. Relation of bright patches to relief was assessed using DTMs based on detailed tachymetric measurements. The possible influence of water and tillage erosion on their spatial growth was analysed through erosion modelling. The land use history in the 20th century was reconstructed. Slight decrease in total cultivated area was proved. The total number of field decreased 20-times, area of bright patches increased 3.88 - times. Downslope tillage was substituted by contour tillage. Smaller patches situated in areas with higher slope gradient near upper field boundary were predominant in 1949. The change in agricultural practices conditioned widening and prolongation of original patches in new tillage direction. Larger regular long and narrow patches were created on terrain edges. Their relation to areas of higher slope gradient is less visible than in 1949. Content of concave forms of profile curvature within patches increased. Analyses of current water and tillage erosion patterns show influence of both processes on bright patches formation. The relation with areas of most intensive tillage erosion is evident. Results suggest that bright patches were originally created in topographic positions presumable influenced by tillage erosion. Intensification of agriculture induced acceleration of both water and tillage erosion and thereby led to their spatial spreading and re-modelling of areas which had not been influenced before.
Key words: land use changes, erosion, bright patches, relief, GIS

Alena Petrvalská:
Development of conceptions concerning origins and genesis of planation surface in the Western Carpathians
Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica, 9, 2009, 2, 64 - 77.
4 figs., 1 tab., 124 refs.

The paper concerns the issue of planation surfaces on the territory of the Western Carpathians, their origin and genesis. Firstly, it introduces the types of planation surfaces which were explored from the beginning of the 20th century on. In the second part, the theoretical conceptions of the scientists on the planation surfaces in the Western Carpathians in the time line are introduced. In development of conceptions we can see 3 main streams. In the first half of 20th century scientist think, that planation surfaces originate by abrasion. In second half of 20th century was an opinion that they originate by subaerial planation and from 1990 a new denudation chronology was created. It is followed by localization of surfaces in the geomorphological units on the territory of Slovakia.        
Key words: Western Carpathians, denudation chronology, planation surface, mid mountain level, glacis, abrasion terrace, initial surface, inland surface, high mountain level


Ján Sládek:
Geomorphological rock value identification by Schmidt hammer test in southern part of the Žiar Mountains

Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica, 9, 2009, 2, 78 - 86.
3 figs., 3 tabs., 15 refs.

The contribution deals with our experience of the Schmidt hammer test in the rock value identification. We report some experiment results, which were realized on rock samples and in stone pits in the southern part of the Žiar Mountains. Experiments were focused on the moisture effect and R (Q) value variations. Investigation of the dependence of the rock samples R (Q) value change on their weight was also part of the research. Seven stone pits mainly in the crystallinic core of the Žiar Mts. were evaluated. The Silver Schmidt BN type presented the research technological basis. The Rock hardness in southern part of The Žiar Mts. is between 40 and 68 Q, witch could be result of morphotectonic movements and different geomorphologic and geological evolution of this area.
Key words: Schmidt hammer test, Silver Schmidt, rock hardness, the Žiar Mts.