Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica   
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Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica
2/2007

Content/Obsah

KAZIMIERZ KLIMEK:
Environmental causes and geomorphic record of Early Medieval colonization: South-Western margin of the Rybnik Plateau and the neighbouring Odra valley 
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JANA KADLČÍKOVÁ:
Testování a výběr interpolačních metod DMR v závislosti na typu georeliéfu 
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NIKOLA JURKOVÁ –   PAVEL BOSÁK – MARYNA KOMAR – PETR PRUNER:
Relict flowstone at Machnín (the Ještěd Ridge, North Bohemia, Czech Republic) and its importance for relief evolution 
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ALŽBETA MEDVEĎOVÁ - ROBERTA PROKEŠOVÁ - ELENA KRÁTKA:
Morphology of torrential stream – case study of the Vôdka brook 
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IRENEUSZ MALIK:
Role of Coarse Woody Debris (CWD) in formation of bottom of meandering river channel (a case study of the Mała Panew – Opole Plain)
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FILIP HARTVICH – JIŘÍ ZVELEBIL – DAVID HAVLÍČEK – MILOSLAV SLABINA:
Multidisciplinary analysis of a slope failure at the Obří Hrad site in the Šumava Mts.

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DUŠAN BARABAS – JANA SÝKOROVÁ:
Akumulačné formy v koryte toku Bodva a ich  priestorové rozšírenie

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JÁN KOŠŤÁLIK:
Genéza  a stratigrafia sedimentov Košickej kotliny vo svetle nových výskumov  
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JÁN NOVOTNÝ –  MILAN LEHOTSKÝ –  ANNA GREŠKOVÁ:
Morfologický vývoj medzihrádzového priestoru (Dunaj, Bratislava) 
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MILAN LEHOTSKÝ –  ANNA GREŠKOVÁ: 
Odozva morfológie vysokogradientového vodného toku  na veterenú  kalamitu – ekologický aspekt
  
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SPRAVODAJCA ASG  


Abstracts/Abstrakty

 

Kazimierz Klimek: Environmental causes and geomorphic record of Early Medieval colo-nization: South-Western margin of the Rybnik Plateau and the neighbouring Odra valley. 
Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica, 7, 2007, 2, 6  figs., 24 refs.

Downstream of the Ostrava Basin, the Odra valley dissects a zone of loess plateaus — the Głubczyce and Rybnik Plateaus. The traces of human activity from the Early Medieval are recorded here as the natural levee and also alluvial fans at the Rybnik Plateau slope. In the Odra valley floor pronounced traces of palaeomeanders have been preserved. They are filled with fine-grained alluvia interbedded with organic layers, dated  between 4,410±70 years BP and 3,250±70 years BP. The Odra channel is accompanied by a natural levee, 1 to 1.5 metres high and covering the palaeomeanders. On its flat summit, which was inundated only during catastrophic floods, human settlements existed at least as since the 12th or 13th century. The SW slope of the Rybnik Plateau is dissected by deep valleys. At their mouths to the Odra valley, alluvial fans have partly covered the Odra palaeochannels. Prograding alluvial fans interrupted the accumulation of organic matter. Radiocarbon dates for the top layers of those organic deposits are very similar: 1,390±80 years BP (cal 1o 540-700 AD) and 1,430±70 years BP (cal 1o 540-670 AD). This indicates that erosion within the catchments dissecting the margin of the Rybnik Plateau, settle by Slav tribes, intensified after the Migration Period.
Key worlds: Odra alluvial plain, palaeochannels, natural levee, alluvial fan, Slavs.

 

Jana Kadlčíková: Testing and selecting of the interpolation methods of DEM according to the type of georelief.
Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica, 7, 2007, 2, 4 Figs., 3 Tabs., 10 Refs.

The aim of the article is to introduce the way of testing and selecting of the most suitable interpolation methods (and settings of their parameters) for calculation of the digital elevation models (DEM) according to the type of a georelief on the level of geomorphologic districts. The methods for the calculation of  the DEMs (IDW, spline with tension, regularized spline) are tested on the chosen data samples in the environment of the software ArcGIS 9.2 and will be tested in the environment of the software Grass GIS 6.0 (methods: IDW and RST). The gross errors, systematic errors and the random errors are observed for the resulting DEMs.
Key words: testing of interpolation methods, setting of parameters, IDW, spline with tension, regularized spline, DEM, types of georelief

 

Nikola Jurková,  Pavel Bosák,  Maryna Komar, Petr Pruner: Relict flowstone at Machnín (the Ještěd Ridge, North Bohemia, Czech Republic) and its importance for relief evolution.
Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica, 7, 2007, 2, 3 Figs., 27 Refs.

Unroofed caves represent special features of superficial karst morphology. They developed due to the transformation of underground cavities caused by a range of geomorphic processes especially by relief lowering by chemical denudation. U8nroofed caves can be identified on the carst surface due to their shape or due to occurrence of cave sediments and speleothems. The rest of flowstone crust represents the first indication of unroofed cave in the Czech Republic, although typical features of unroofed caves are missing (depression-like form, cave walls) and also geomorphic position on top of limestone ridge is unigue. It represents highly evolved example of unroofing process. The flowstone overlying calcite-cemented breccia was discovered in position in situ in one small karst area of the Ještěd Ridge. Upper Pliocene to Lower Pleistocene (about 3.6 to 0.7 Ma) age has been obtained by palynological and paleomagnetic analyses. Comparison of age and relative altitude position indicates the valley incision rate from 28 to 143 mm.ka-1.
Key words: relict of cave, cave sediments,k palynology, paleomagnetism, tectonics, Ještěd Ridge

 

Alžbeta Medveďová,  Roberta Prokešová,  Elena Krátka: Morphology of torrential stream – case study of the Vôdka brook.
Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica, 7, 2007, 2, 11 Figs., 1 Tab., 27 Refs.

The paper deals with the geomorphological investigations of the Vôdka stream basin with focusing on present processes and landforms at hillslopes, on the floodplain and in the channel. The width of the channel, the width of the floodplain, the height of channel at river segment cross-sections, and all three axes (a, b, c) of river-bed clasts were measured during detailed fieldwork. The analysis of the longitudinal profile and its knickpoints, the analysis of the valley cross-sections and the granulometric analysis were performed. Questions about the dynamics of channel and floodplain as well as sediment sources at geologically complicated catchment are discussed. Standard GIS tools were used for constructing the digital elevation model, longitudinal profile and valley cross-sections.
Key words: Vôdka brook, valley-river system, in-channel and hillslope processes, landslide, cross-sections, longitudinal profile, digital elevation model, GIS

 

Ireneusz Malik: Role of Coarse Woody Debris (CWD) in formation of bottom of meandering river channel (a case study of the Mała Panew – Opole Plain).
Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica, 7, 2007, 2, 9 Figs., 37 Refs.

The role of Coarse Woody Debris (CWD) in formation of sandy channel bottom of meandering river flowing through the Silesian Lowland was investigated. In result of lateral erosion trees covering terrace levels, undercut by river, are overturned into the channel, where they occur as CWD. In dependence on their amount, position in relation to the channel axe, location and intensity of redeposition they can capture alluvia and cause increased accumulation and erosion at the channel bottom. Large depositional and erosional forms most often occur at the channel in result of influence of CWD accumulation or individual logs, which are located in the channel transversally in relation to its axis. To main deposition forms occurring in the Mała Panew river channel and caused by CWD belong sand shadows and outwashes. Sand shadows originate behind CWD in result of flow separation in hydraulic shadow of the barrier, whereas the outwashes are located behind and partially before the CWD or individual log, they originate in result of increased deposition of material under the convex channel bank. CWD also generate small erosional forms, to which belong as follows: reverse depressions, streamlined depressions and overflow kettles. Reverse depressions are basin-like erosional forms, originating before CWD in result of water flowing under it and forming here spiral whirls. Streamlined depressions are longitudinal erosional forms located at the border of logs originating in result of bottom erosion resulting from flowing mostly round log accumulation. Overflow kettles are oval depressions located behind CWD, originating in result of both water overflowing above the barrier and bottom erosion caused by the influence of spiral whirls.
Key words: Coarse Woody Debris, riverbed morphology, channel sinuosity, riverbed erosion forms, riverbed accumulation forms, southern Poland

 

Filip Hartvich, Jiří Zvelebil, David Havlíček, Miloslav Slabina: Multidisciplinary analysis of a slope failure at the Obří Hrad site in the Šumava Mts.
Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica, 7, 2007, 2, 10 Figs., 25 Refs.

In this contribution we describe various scientific techniques, which were used during the research of a multigeneration slope deformation on the archaeological Celtic site of Obří Hrad near Kašperské Hory. Due to a specific local condition, practically no accumulations were left, thus we had to work with other, mostly indirect signs and traces of the older generations of the slope. We have used methods of geomorphology, such as detailed mapping, morphological profiling, rock-strength measurements, etc, of engineering geology and geophysics (geophysical profiling, dilatometric monitoring), of archaeology and inorganic chemistry, in particular the X-ray diffraction analysis, which has helped to determine the origin of morphologically unclear accumulation remnants. 
Keywords: slope failure, rockslide, multidisciplinary, X-ray diffraction, slope profile, Šumava Mts.

 

Dušan Barabas, Jana Sýkorová: Acccumulation forms in the Bodva river channel and their spatial distribution.
Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica, 7, 2007, 2, 8 Figs., 5 Refs.

The paper summarizes the results of measuring accumulation forms (bars) in the Bodva river. Measuring and assessing the bars with each part being 100 meter long it was possible to process the statistics of changes of accumulation forms and compare it with conversion longitudinal glide slope of the Bodva river. It was also possible to relate the changes of accumulation forms with the changes of geological forms in the borders with the Medzevská Pahorkatina hills as a part of the Košická valley into the Volovské vrchy Mts. The achieved results point out the patterns of distribution of accumulation forms depending on the morphometric channel. The number of accumulation forms as well as their cumulative width and length is increasing against the water stream.
Key words: channel morphology, Bodva River, precipitation, discharge relation, bars

 

Ján Košťálik: Genesis and stratigraphy of the Košická kotlina basin in the light of the new research results.
Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica, 7, 2007, 2, 6 Figs., 2 Tabs., 26 Refs.

Košická kotlina basin geographically covers the area among Slanské vrchy Mts. in east, foothills of Spišsko-šarišské medzihorie and Beskydské predhorie in North, and foothills of Čierna hora and Hornádske predhorie in the West. Southern boundary is forming the state boundary with Hungary. From the geomorphologic point of view, the depression has a character of basin-highlands. The depression belongs to lowland type of West Carpathian depressions with good physical-geographic conditions (geological structure, relief, temperature, precipitation, soils, vegetation) and with increased social-economical activities.The area of northern part of Košická kotlina depression, mainly between Delna and Drienovsky potok valleys, with locality Petrovany – Močarmany, south – east from Prešov, with presence of loess complexes, has give us a chance to study cryogenic structures, fossil soil complexes and categorize them into the chronostratigraphic  system. 
Kľúčové slová: fossil soils, cryogenic forms, clay mineral, interglacial, glacial

 

Ján Novotný, Milan Lehotský, Anna Grešková: Morphological development of the inter-dike space (Danube, Bratislava).
Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica, 7, 2007, 2, 4 figs., 24 refs.

Radical changes in land use, especially the complex process of urbanisation, have led to marked decrease of biodiversity and ecological health of riverine landscape. Therefore in many communities in different countries are in operation various projects of restoration or rehabilitation of fluvial systems. Important role in these interdisciplinary projects plays knowledge about river morphology and interactions between channel and floodplain. The aim of this paper is to present preliminary results of our investigations in the field of morphological development of active floodplain area of river Danube in Bratislava, confined by system of flood protective dikes constructed in the 1950s. Our research, based on analyses of aerial photos, historical maps and field mapping, shows important changes in geodiversity, which manifest mainly in widening of the main channel, reduction of floodplain space and destruction of abandoned channels system. We have also identified continuous vertical accretion with the rate about 1,5 cm per year. Morphology of the study reach is modified mainly by sedimentation through extreme flood events. Flood in 2002 has brought 20 – 60 cm of new sandy sediment in the space of levees.
Key words: fluvial geomorphology, urban river systems, geodiversity of floodplain, vertical accretion, Danube

 

Milan Lehotský, Anna Grešková: Morphological response of the  high-gradien river to the windblown forest – ecological aspect.
Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica, 7, 2007, 2, 5 Figs., 21 Refs.

The behaviour of the fluvial geosystems is not linear. The non-linearity lies in the continuous adaptation to disturbing agents that are natural or anthropic in their essence. One example of such events includes the episodic forest calamities caused by the wind. The windthrow is defined as the tree or group of trees that have been felled by heavy wind. The November 2004 windblow in the Tatra Mts. caused a large-scale destruction of adult forest growths on an extensive area including that of the riverine landscape of the sub-Tatra brooks.  The article offers the methodological procedure and comprehensive assessment of the destabilization of the river channel morphology under the effects of the windblown and removal of the fallen trees. The methodology consists of the following steps:
– channel and floodplain classification and identification of river reaches,
– identification of bottom and bank destabilization indicators,
– survey of the large woody debris effect on the river channel stability and morphology in river reaches struck by the wind calamity.
Key words:  morphological response, windblown forest, Tatra Mts., large woody debris