Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica   
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Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica
1/2012

Content/Obsah

ANNA DOBOS: 
Reconstruction of Quaternary landscape development with geomorphological mapping and analysing of sediments at the Cserépfalu Basin (the Bükk Mts., Hungary)
   
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KAROL AUGUSTOWSKI - DOROTA CHMIELOWSKA - JÓZEF KUKULAK - JOANNA ZAWIEJSKA:
Varied riverbank stability in the foreland of the Tatra Mountains 
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JOZEF JAKÁL - JÁN URBÁNEK:
Vývoj geomorfologického výzkumu v podmienkach Geografického ústavu SAV 
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PAVEL BELLA - ĽUDOVÍT GAÁL:
Hypogénne jaskyne na Slovensku: súčasné poznatky a zameranie výskumu 
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PETER ORVOŠ - MONIKA ORVOŠOVÁ:
Morfoštruktúrne pole Muránskej planiny a jeho špecifiká v rámci krasových plošín Slovenska 
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Abstracts/Abstrakty

Anna Dobos:
Reconstruction of Quaternary landscape development with geomorphological mapping and analysing of sediments at the Cserépfalu Basin (the Bükk Mts., Hungary)
Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica, 12, 2012, 1, 7 - 22.
11 figs., 26 refs.

The Cserépfalu Basin is a pediment basin situated in the dual pediment surface of the Bükkalja Foothill Area, at the southern margin of the Bükk Mountains, 20 kilometres far away from Eger, in the North Hungarian Mountain Range. The remnants of the older pediment (Sümegium – Bérbaltavárium period, 8 – 5,5 million years ago) and the lower, younger and more extended pediment surface (Villányium period, 1,8 million years ago) can be shown in the surroundings of the basin. The younger pediment surface developed on different Miocene rhyolite tuffs (Gyulakeszi Rhyolite Tuff Formation, Tar Dacite Tuff Formation, Harsány Rhyolite Tuff Formation) and Pliocene sand and clay series was dissected by denudation appeared because of Quaternary tectonic movements and climate changes. After the formation of younger pediment surface new, Quaternary landforms and sediments appeared in the basin. The Hór Stream, the Cseresznyés Stream and the Szoros Stream have transported a lot of sediments accumulated during the Tertiary period from the basin towards the Borsod Plain. New types of sediments appeared along the slopes and its surroundings, in alluvium. Cryoplanational processes formed the surface of the younger pediment too; Pleistocene fluvial terraces (No. II/b., No. II/a.), Holocene fluvial terraces (No. I.) and mass movements developed along slopes in different levels during the Quaternary period. 500 and 1 000 metre wide alluvium with alluvial fans evaluated in this territory. The aim of our article is to examine and map the Quaternary landforms and sediments developed during the Pleistocene and Holocene period here and to reconstruct the Quaternary landscape development in the basin. To point out different, various types of sediments, we investigated smaller study areas in the Cserépfalu Basin and we could explain different climate changes during the Würm and Holocene period here.
Key Words: landscape development, pediments, the Quaternary period, sediments, climate change, the Bükk Mts.

 

Karol Augustowski, Dorota Chmielowska, Józef Kukulak, Joanna Zawiejska:
Varied riverbank stability in the foreland of the Tatra Mountains
Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica, 12, 2012, 1, 23 - 30.
4 figs., 36 refs.

The northern foreland of the Tatra Mountains is drained by local streams (e.g. the Cichy Stream, the Bystry Stream, the Czerwony Stream) and transit rivers flowing from the Tatra Mountains (the Czarny Dunajec River, the Biały Dunajec River, the Białka Tatrzańska River). Riverbanks of smaller channels are cut in the Podhale Flysch or in alluvia of these rivers. In the downstream river reaches, the banks are typically composed of undercut rock (sandstone-shale or loam) topped with sandy-silty or gravelly overbank deposits. The rocks were examined in terms of their resistance to frost weathering and gravitational processes at several study sites on the banks of the Czarny Dunajec River and the Cichy Stream. Erosion pins method was used to determine the rate of frost processes. Measurements of bank retreat were carried out several times during the freezing and thawing periods. Grain-size distribution and cohesion of the fine-grained alluvium were determined. Density and pattern of the cracks as well as textural and structural properties of rocks were measured on the sandstone and shale undercut riverbanks. Frost action first blasts the banks built of silty-sandy material, then gravelly, poorly cemented ones (young terraces), and finally sandstone and shale outcrops. There are also significant differences in the dynamics of bank retreat depending on its lithology. High riverbanks are also subject to mass movements. Landslides occur mainly in places where the terrace bedrock consists of clay material and the accumulation cover is gravelly and sandy-silty. Groundwater seepage from the surface of the slope increases the plasticity of clay thus inducing landsliding processes. Others mass movements occur when the banks are undercut during flood events and during the spring thawing of the soil. Stability of the banks is minimal in areas with no vegetation cover as geological structure is exposed directly to the activity of weathering and gravitational processes.
Key words: riverbanks, frost weathering, landslides, the Nowy Targ – Orava Basin

 

Jozef Jakál, Ján Urbánek:
Development of geomorphological research in the Institute of Geography, Slovak Academy of Sciences
Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica, 12, 2012, 1, 31 - 37.
36 refs.

The Institute of Geography has belonged to the institutes that arose already in 1943, when the Slovak Academy of Sciences and Arts was founded. From 1953 the Institute has developed two main streams of geography – Physical geography and Economic Geography. Under the leadership of the Institute director E. Mazúr, the group of geomorphologists started to create and geomorphology has became the strongest research cluster of the Institute. In the beginning, the geomorphological research was focused to the detailed regional geomorphological mapping of the selected regions of Slovakia (e.g. the Žilinská kotlina Basin, the Východoslovenská nížina Lowland, the Turčianska kotlina Basin, the Malé Karpaty Mts., the Slovenský kras Karst region), with the landforms classification, geomorphic regionalisation and the relief genesis description. Another trend - neotectonic development of the relief - started to prevail from 1975. The research has been focused to the morphostructural analysis and development of the planated surfaces. In last decade the group of fluvial geomorphologists became the strongest. It is focused to the complex geomorphic research of the rivers and river systems analyses. The Institution managed many international conferences in the Carpatho-Balkan Geomorphological Commission framework as well as another symposiums. It also participated at the organisation of the 6th International Congress of Speleology in 1973.
Key words: development of geomorphology, geomorphological mapping, morphostructural analysis, river geosystems, Institute of Geography, Slovak Academy of Sciences

 

Pavel Bella, Ľudovít Gaál:
Hypogenic caves in Slovakia: current knowledge and research objectives
Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica, 12, 2012, 1, 38 - 50.
4 figs., 76 refs.

Various types of hypogenic caves in Slovakia are associated with the complicated geological settings and geomorphological development of the Western Carpathians. This paper presents the first overview of existing knowledge on hypogenic caves in Slovakia and main aims of their following research. These morphogenetic types of hypogenic caves were studied till now: (1) hypogenic caves that the origin was induced by subvolcanic intrusions (upwardly hydrothermal dissolution caves in basement metamorphosed carbonates of the Štiavnica stratovolcano, hydrothermal geodes and caves in metasomatic secondary quartzites formed by acid leaching and silicification of andesite porphyries by magmatic fluids of subvolcanic intrusion), (2) hypogenic caverns and caves originated in hydrogeological conditions with a deep circulation of underground waters (hydrothermal dissolution caverns and small caves in carbonate structures disrupted by deep faults, hydrothermal dissolution caverns in intrastratal carbonate structures, phreatic shaft formed by progradational collapse of overlying non-carbonate beds disrupted by karstification of artesian aquifers within an intramontane basin). Another suitable natural conditions for hypogene speleogenesis are along marginal faulfs of horst morphostructures or fault edges of horstgraben structures in tectonically dissected areas (formation of caves by thermal or slightly heated groundwaters ascending along marginal faults), in underlying and faulted mesosoic carbonates within intermontane basins, also in deep-seated mineral deposits of hydrothermal and metasomatic origin including the appropriate type of magnesite deposits. Several caves of hypogenic morphology were formed by slightly heated waters ascending along marginal faults of horst morphostructures (e. g. the Plavecká jaskyňa Cave and the Plavecká priepasť Shaft in the Malé Karpaty Mts.), but mineralogical evidences of their hypogenic origin are missing. Therefore they cannot be expressly classified as “true” hypogenic caves.
Key words: karst, speleology, hypogenic caves, typology, hydrothermal cave, artesian karstification, the Western Carpathians

 

Peter Orvoš, Monika Orvošová:
Morphostructural field of the Muránska planina Plateau and its specifics within the karst plateaus of Slovakia
Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica, 12, 2012, 1, 51 - 60.
7 figs., 23 refs.

The physical mechanisms of rock deformation, like the other materials, can lead to the formation of quasi - orthogonal fault and joint networks, visible also in relief. Along such as zones selective erosion can operate and there is a high probability of a specific landscape evolution, characterized by the field of conical hills divided by the shallow saddles. This usually happens in plateau karst territories, where the river networks have not reached deeply into the uplifted massives and have not disrupted the original relief shapes. Under the warm and wet conditions, the specific, impressive, so called cockpit karst can develop. On the surface of the Muránska planina Plateau (mainly in the Havranné and Lopušné localities) we can see remnants of little eroded surface which keeps the marks of senility. The network of the tectonic field is still visible in the form of many conical hills, which represent dissected parts of the originaly flat ridges. This style of surface is in less extent visible also in the area of the Slovenský raj Plateau. When this field profiled is uncertain, indications imply burial of primary orthogonal morphostructure, but some development after intensive post - Pannonian tectonic pulses, when the rest of the sedimentary cover was removed during the remodellation of the relief. The original mantlerock material has been transported ouside the area or mixed with deluvium and gradually carried down into the shallow depressions, but it can be found also on some saddles. These proofs of exhumation exist over the whole surface of the plateau, where the sediments contain small amount of limonite and quartz particles, but also clearly redeposited clasts of crystalline rocks. With the use of morpholineament analyse and sediment distribution it can be assumed, what degree of development reached the field before the final uplifts, giving it the majority of contemporary elevation. This specific field is markedly different from that of the plateaus of the Slovenský kras Karst region, where such profiled network of conical hills is not visible, despite the identical rock composition. The differences in elevation or climatic factors cannot play principal role in such striking difference. Denudation history of these areas must have been different by the action of other mechanisms, in principle tectonic ones, responsible for their different evolution.
Key words: morphostructural field, cockpit karst, polygonal karst, the Muránska planina Plateau, Paleogene burial, exhumation, paleokarst