Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica   
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Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica
1/2007

Content/Obsah

JAROMÍR DEMEK –  KAREL KIRCHNER –  PETER MACKOVČIN –  PETR SLAVÍK: 
The map of morphostructures of the Czech Republic
   
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PETRA ŠTĚPANČÍKOVÁ: 
Morphostructual evolution of the relief of the Rychlebské hory (Mts) (SE Sudeten Mts, Czech Republic)
 
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MILAN LEHOTSKÝ – JÁN LACIKA: 
Typy segmentov dolinovo-riečnych systémov s veľvysočinovou zdrojovou zónou: príklad Tatier
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ANNA GREŠKOVÁ – MILAN LEHOTSKÝ:
Vplyv lesných brehových porastov na správanie a morfológiu riečneho koryta 
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PAVEL RAŠKA:
Comments on the recent dynamics of scree slopes in the Czech Middle Mountains 
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JIŘÍ RIEZNER:
Agrární formy reliéfu ve Zlatohorské vrchovině
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KAREL ŠILHÁN – TOMÁŠ PÁNEK:
Blokovobahenní proudy v masivu Smrku (Moravskoslezské Beskydy; Česká Republika) 
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PAVEL BELLA:
Geologické, geomorfologické a geoekologické znaky zrútených a de-nudovaných jaskýň na povrchu krasovej krajiny 
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BOGDAN GĄDEK – ANDRZEJ KOTYRBA:
Contemporary and fossil metamorphic ice in Medena kotlina (Slovak Tatras), mapped by ground-penetrating radar 
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PIOTR LAMPARSKI –  STANISŁAW KĘDZIA:
Permafrost occurrence in Kozia Dolinka (High Tatra Mountains) in light of ground penetrating radar investigations
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Abstracts/Abstrakty

Jaromír Demek, Karel Kirchner, Peter Mackovčin, Petr Slavík:
The map of mor-phostructures of the Czech Republic.
Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica, 7, 2007, 1, 5 Figs., 27 refs.

The authors present a map of morphostructures in the territory of the Czech Republic. Morphostructures (GERASIMOV 1946) are terrain types generated by a combination of the neotectonic activity and exogenic processes (mainly climate controlled). Morphostructures exist in a hierarchical arrangement. Individual morpohostructures were delimited by morphostructural analysis using structural geological and hydrogeological information, planation surfaces, morphometric analysis, and analysis of geomorphic nets, river terraces and correlative deposits as key data sources. The map contains the classification and the cartographic presentation of individual types of morphostructures on the territory of Czechia using colours and signs. The authors distinguished 6 megamorphostructures of the 1st order: Bohemian Massif, Moravian-Silesian Terrane, Carpathian Foredeep, Outer Western Carpathians, Pannonian Basin and Silesian Lowland, and a range of morphostructures of the 2nd and 3rd order.
Key Words: Czech Republic, map of morphostructures, morphostructural analysis.

 

Petra Štěpančíková: Morphostructual evolution of the relief of the Rychlebské hory (Mts) (SE Sudeten Mts, Czech Republic).
Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica, 7, 2007, 1, 6 Figs., 84 Refs.

Morhostructural evolution was reconstructed based on morphotectonic research carried out in the Rychlebské hory (Mts) and the adjacent area, situated in the NE spur of the Bohemian Massif. This region is located within the Sudetic Marginal Fault zone (SMF), which is one of the morphologically most prominent neotectonic structures in central Europe. During neotectonic period starting in Miocene, paleosurfaces were faulted and uplifted within the Sudetic block and resulted in the formation of the Sudeten (Mts). On the other hand, Fore-Sudetic block representing Sudetic Foreland subsided and several grabens filled with hundreds meters of related (correlative) deposits were developed close to the SMF. Tectonic activity was accompanied also by volcanism. In Pleistocene, the continental ice-sheet reached the studied area as such in Elsterian glaciation twice. After deglaciation, since Saalian 1, three levels of fluvial terraces/alluvial fans were deposited. Many blocks within the Fore-Sudetic block were then uplifted, probably as a result of glacioisostatic rebound, which caused a deformation of the fluvial/alluvial deposits levels. The uplift rate diminishes towards the Late Pleistocene, from cca 20 m to cca 5 m. Paleoseismological trenching within the SMF zone revealed thrusting during Pleistocene/Holocene. Ongoing uplift of the studied portion of the SMF zone is confirmed by spatial arrangements of enhanced erosion as well as monitoring of displacements on tectonic structures.
Key words: morphostructural evolution, neotectonics, recent activity, Bohemian Massif, Sudeten mountains, Rychlebské hory (Mts), Žulovská pahorkatina (Hilly land)

 

Milan Lehotský, Ján Lacika: Segment types of valley-river systems with high-mountains source zone: case study  the Tatra Mts..
Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica, 7, 2007, 1, 12 Figs., 12 Refs.

This contribution is a follow- up to the work of LEHOTSKÝ and NOVOTNÝ (2004) presenting classification of the taxonomy level – the zone of the river system in Slovakia. It is focused on the typology of the second classification level – the segment. The authors tried to outline the general procedure for identification of the segment types in the longitudinal profiles of valleys developing between the high-mountain source zone in the Tatra Mts. and the transfer and response basin zone in the basin Podtatranská kotlina or the furrow Podtatranská brázda. Nine  types of segments with specific setting,  morphogenesis and processes have been identified. Number and character of identified segments in individual valleys differ. These differences are determined by the specific morphostructural properties in the very dynamically developing central part of the West Carpathians. 
Key words: Tatra Mts., valley-river systems, segment, longitudinal profile

 

Anna Grešková, Milan Lehotský: Impacts of riparian forest on behaviour and morphology of river channel.
Geomorphplogia Slovaca et Bohemica, 7, 2007, 1, 5 Figs., 1 Tab., 30 Refs.

The trend of a great part of the present research in river channel morphology is driven by cognitive efforts accompanied by the necessity to solve the environmental problems and to satisfy the single legislation in force concerning the river systems. Increased interest in the issue led to the development of ever more specific research aspects with emphasis on relationships between channel morphology on the one side, performance of river and its morphological efficiency, sediment transport, large woody debris (LWD) and riparian vegetation on the other. Rivers are complex systems and their morphological state, form and behaviour reflects mutual linkages between geomorphological, hydrologic and ecological processes. The geomorphological significance between riparian vegetation and fluvial processes is illustrated at different scales. The paper brings some results of investigation of interactions between riparian forest and small river channel morphology in a large scale. Research was carried out in four channel-floodplain units, which represent the 3.5 km long corridor-shaped part of the small stream valley Vydrica.
Key words: forest channel, river channel morphology, riparian forest, riparian tree roots, field survey

 

Pavel Raška: Comments on the recent dynamics of scree slopes in the Czech Middle Mountains.
Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica, 7, 2007, 1, 4 figs., 28 refs.

Scree slopes have been actually long recognized as significant landforms in a landscape, which represent the indicators of palaeogeographical development of a territory on one hand, and the specific recent environment on the other. The origin and primary development of these landforms was traditionally related to the Last Glacial, resp. Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles, however, the progress in geomorphologic research of scree slopes during last few decades indicated, that these might have evolved continuously during the Holocene period. Our research, which was carried out in the Czech Middle Mountains in north-western Czechia was focused on evidences of the recent dynamics of scree slopes and their environmental change. Dendrogeomorphologic and dendrochronologic analyses showed the evidences of rock-fall, i.e. continuous formation of scree, at least 18 years back. Moreover, sedimentologic analyses of clast size, distribution, and shallow profiles indicated the probable climatic multifactor influence taking part on recent intensive dynamics of scree slopes. Overall results of the research than contribute to the concepts of environmental changes of the Quaternary rocky slope mantles.        
Key words: scree slope, environmental change, dendrogeomorphology, the Holocene, the Czech Middle Mountains (České Středohoří)

 

Jiří Riezner: Agrarian landforms  in the Zlatohorská vrchovina Highlands.
Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica, 7, 2007, 1, 5 Figs., 1 Tab., 30 Refs.

The agrarian landforms are the by-product of the farming practices over many centuries. In the investigated area of the Zlatohorská vrchovina Highlands include to them agrarian terraces, agrarian stone walls and agrarian stone heaps. The anthropogenic geomorphological effect by Zapletal (1976) as the part of quantitative evaluation of anthropogenic relief was calculated for two selected landscape segments; the relief of the first locality (Kostelní Hill near the village Heřmanovice) was transformed by the unintended creation of the numerous agrarian terraces by longstanding ploughing of long narrow fields at slopes followed by the water erosion/solifluction. The second locality (cadastral area Komora) was changed deliberately by the building of long parallel agrarian stone walls from rocks gathered by farmers by hand from the arable soil. The anthropogenic transformation of the relief by the agrarian activity was here an important geomorphological factor; the agrarian landforms are in the Zlatohorská vrchovina Highlands very frequent, well-preserved, and have relatively great dimensions. In these aspects the studied area has only few analogies in the Czech Republic. The impacts of the agrarian forms on the environment was briefly summarized, too. The characterised historical landscape elements arise no more, because some anthropogenic geomorphological processes ceased to exist here (caused by the extinction of traditional farming procedures and by afforestation and grassing of almost whole arable land). Despite it they served many functions in present landscape and deserve therefore our protection.
Key words: Zlatohorská vrchovina Highlands; agrarian landforms, quantitative evaluation of the anthropogenic relief; anthropogenic geomorphological effect

 

Karel Šilhán, Tomáš Pánek:  Mountain group of the Smrk Mt. in the Moravskoslezské Beskydy Mts. one of the most suitable preconditions for genesis of fast slope movements in the scope of the Czech flysh Carpathians.
Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica, 7, 2007, 1, 10 Figs., xx Refs.

The most significant predisposition factors, giving this localities passing possition are morphometrics characteristics. There are debris flows accumulations located almost at all valleys of this massif. They have mostly shape of elongated mounds, which are located in riverbeds, gravitational lines on slopes or shape of variedly morphologically shaped fans in place of abrupt decrease dynamics of valley systems. The border in longitudinal profile between koluvial and fluvial segment was morphometrically approximated and compared with maximal debris flow distance in reality. Generally, we can differ two basic types of debris flow accumulations in our research area. Fossil flows individualize by large volumes and large spatial extent, but recent flows have small volumes and they usually occur in upper part of valleys or on slopes. There is the largest accumulation of study area situated in upper part of the Bučací potok valley. There were identified 4 mutually overlapped accumulations there, on the base of methods of relative dating. The Bučací brook valley was investigated in detail, because there is large alluvial fan in its upper part. There was studied interaction between product of strictly slope processes and connecting prolluvial sediments here.
Key words: Debris flows, alluvial fans, preparatory factors, sedimentology, relative dating, Moravskoslezské Beskydy Mts.

 

Pavel Bella: Geological, geomorphological and geoecological features of collapsed and denuded caves on the surface of karst landscape.
Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica, 7, 2007, 1, 7 Figs., 48 Refs.

Denuded cave fragments present remarkable natural phenomena on the surface of karst areas. They are very important paleokarst or fossil karst features for the reconstruction and timing of the development of caves and karst surface morphology. The term „unroofed caves“ or „roofless caves“ was introduced and specified in the karstological literature during the half of ninethies of the last century by Slovenian karst researchers (MIHEVC 1996, MIHEVC and ZUPAN HAJNA 1996, SLABE 1997, MIHEVC et al. 1998, KNEZ and SLABE 1999, 2001, 2005, ŠUŠTERŠIČ 2000 and others). Originally the term is related to geological and geomorphological phenomena of denuded caves or their parts resulted by lowering of karst surface, partially transformed by surface natural processes. But this strict sence of the term is refered only to surface denudation processes of cave uncovering and destruction without collapsed variants of cave un-roofing caused by underground karstification (KLIMCHOUK 2006). From this reasons two basic genetic categories related to denuded and collapsed „unroofed caves“ are emphasized. „Unroofed caves“ are also the suitable example of geoecological invariant transformation of cave geosystems into karst landscape systems (BELLA 2005). From the geological, geomorphological and geoecological point of view terminological problems of using of this term are discussed in the paper. Postcave phenomena extensively uncovered on the surface are not stringently caves defined as underground karst phenomena, but they are considered as surface landforms or another postcave features in the karst landscape. „Unroofed caves“ are characterized as (1) postcave sedimentary formations or their remains preserved on the karst surface, (2) postcave surface depressions (empty or partially filled by cave sedimets) in the surface morphology of karst areas, and (3) postcave geosystems in the karst landscape transformed on its surface by successive changes caused by surface natural processes after a denudation of overlying rocks or collapse of cave ceilings.
Key words: karstology, karst denudation, unroofed caves, unwalled shaft, karstologic terminology, postcave sedimentary formation, postcave surface depression, postcave landscape system, invariant change of cave geosystem

 

Bogdan Gądek, Andrzej Kotyrba: Contemporary and fossil metamorphic ice in Medena kotlina (Slovak Tatras), mapped by ground-penetrating radar.
Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica, 7, 2007, 1, 4 Figs., 1 Tab., 40 Refs.

This paper shows results of detailed ground-penetrating radar surveys at 500 MHz of glacieret in the Medena kotlina – the largest in the Tatras patch of metamorphic ice. The recorded radar image showed the substratum and the internal structure of the glacieret together with its hydrothermal features. It revealed also the occurrence of fossil metamorphic ice that is a glacial trace of former climate and simultaneously it is a form of contemporary permafrost. The penetration range of the performed survey reached 25 m.
Key words: glacierets, fossil ice, alpine permafrost, cryospheric indicators, GPR surveys, the Tatra Mountains

 

Piotr Lamparski, Stanisław Kędzia: Permafrost occurrence in Kozia Dolinka (High Tatra Mountains) in light of ground penetrating radar investigations.
Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica, 7, 2007,1, 5 Figs., 1 Tab., 13 Refs.

The investigations on permafrost occurrence in Kozia Dolinka valley in Polish part of High Tatra Mountains have been carried out since the mid 1990s with the application  of different investigation methods (BTS – bottom temperature of the winter snow cover, DC resistivity soundings, infrared imaging). In September 2005, the next investigations were carried out in Kozia Dolinka with the application of georadar soundings, which had not been used before in this area. The results of these soundings were then compared with other results of investigations which had been carried out in Kozia Dolinka. Despite difficult high-mountain conditions (the investigations were carried out at the altitude of 1.900-2.000 m a.s.l.) this method appeared very useful for this kind of  investigations. The obtained results are very similar to the results obtained from other earlier used methods. This considerable consistence of results from different geophysical investigations, which were carried out in different time, evidences the stability of permafrost, suitable selection of research methods and their comparability. Georadar soundings carried out in Kozia Dolinka confirmed the occurrence of permafrost within the slopes facing north and lack of permafrost within sun (south) facing slopes and in the valley bottom. Non of the studied profiles showed the resistance typical for glacier ice, as it took place in Medená kotlina in Slovakian Tatra Mountains. The obtained results suggest the occurrence of permafrost in form of frozen debris and soil. 
Key words: High Tatras Mts, permafrost, ground penetrating radar