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Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica


The origin of rounded granite elevations in the northern foothills of the Jizera Mountains
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Accuracy of surface models acquired from different sources – important information for geomorphological research
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Landslide susceptibility modelling: A case study on Fruška gora mountain, Serbia
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Application of free open-source software tools to automatic and semiautomatic classification of landforms in lowland areas 
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Creation of DEM by kriging method and evaluation of the results 
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Základný koncept navrhovaného lavínového geografického informačného systému
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Barbora Janásková:
The origin of rounded granite elevations in the northern foothills of the Jizera Mountains.
Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica, 9, 2009, 1, 7 - 16.
7 figs., 1 tab., 22 refs.

This paper deals with small granite elevations in the Smědá river catchment. These elevations are elongated and asymmetrically shaped, resembling roches moutonnées, but their origin is obscure. Morphometric methods were used to clarify their origin. The direction of elongation, slope angles and joint orientations were measured on each elevation. The results show that the majority of elevations (16) are elongated in the direction of the glacier advance, and that this is not predetermined by the joint system. The orientation of the gentle slope corresponds to the stoss side in 17 of 23 elevations. These results, as well as a comparison with similar sites in the Czech Republic, suggest that the elevations studied were glacially scoured and can be termed roches moutonnées.
Key Words: roches moutonnées, Jizera Mountains, granite elevation


Karel Jedlička: Accuracy of surface models acquired from different sources – important information for geomorphological research
Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica, 9, 2009, 1, 17 - 28.
7 figs., 2 tabs., 26 refs.

The article deals with definitions of surface models, their representations and accuracy. A surface is associated with Earth in geo-related sciences. First various existing types of Earth’s surface models are described which can be stored in computer in different representations. The description of three different data acquisition methods (topographical mapping, stereophotogrammetry and laser scanning) which can produce surface data follows. Each method has a typical primary digital representation, which is mentioned. Also the accuracy of data models differs (depending on data acquisition method). Finally, described methods are compared and the vision of the surface models acquisition and storage is briefly outlined.
Key words: digital terrain model, digital elevation model, digital surface model, topographic mapping, stereophotogrammetry, LIDAR, laser scan, accuracy, geomorphology


Miloš Marjanović: Landslide susceptibility modelling: A case study on Fruška gora mountain, Serbia.
Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica, 9, 2009, 1, 29 - 42.
11 figs., 28 refs.

This study deals with a succession of multi-criteria analyses that outcomes in a series of landslide susceptibility maps. Principally, it considers the raster modelling approach and the opportunities which raster combining brings about, utilized via Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and aided by Geographic Information System (GIS) spatial tools. The area of interest encompasses the NW slopes of Fruška gora, a small mountain range in vicinity of Novi Sad, Serbia. In order to interpret the landslide susceptibility distribution throughout the selected mid-scale area, several factors were encountered and converted to raster models. At the beginning, they comprised of lithology, drainage properties (linear erosion pattern), the slope inclination, aspect and altitude. Driven in AHP, those rasters produced the first insight in the areal distribution of landslide susceptibility zones. Later-on former factors were refined and expanded by three more: rainfall precipitation, linear erosion pattern and vegetation cover. This produced another, more advanced interpretation, due to more detailed inputs. Nevertheless, the enhancements within AHP provided even more progressive display. Thus far, those three instances, accordingly the three landslide susceptibility interpretations, depicted classes of proneness: low, mild, moderate and high. The broadest discrepancy in results stands between the first attempt and any of two remaining ones, since the latter have shown only minute variations in weight distributions of the factors. For instance, within the first result the lithology reaches 42 % of influence in the overall, while remaining two cases reduce it to 28 - 29 %. The control model was needed to be established in order to properly relate those results and point to the most prevalent one (even though it has been suspected that the last result is probably the most genuine). Since more detailed records or engineering geology maps have not been available, a photogeological map (tailored almost entirely by Remote Sensing techniques) was addressed as a control model. Superimposed to such standard, the final models (susceptibility maps) revealed substantial correlations progressively (the more extensive the approach, the better the final model fitting). 
Key words: Landslide susceptibility, GIS, Raster Model, AHP


Magdalena Ratajczak, Jarosław Jasiewicz: Application of free open-source software tools to automatic and semiautomatic classification of landforms in lowland areas.
Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica, 9, 2009, 1, 43 - 52.
7 figs., 43 refs.

Modern relief of lowland areas covered by Pleistocene glaciations was formed by accumulation, erosion and deformation action of ice-sheets, because of denudation processes in periglacial environment and interglacial (postglacial) and Holocene action of rivers and wind. The relief created this way distinguishes considerable variety of landforms but small diversity in relative heights. Commonly used for upland areas landforms classification methods can not be uncritically imported. The aim of this research is to implement selected application GIS Free Open Source Software G: Grass, R, and TAS to automatic and semiautomatic classifications of landforms on lowland areas and to compare results applying in older geomorphologic-cartographic studies. Classification have been made on digital elevation model of area 42 x 25 km with resolution of 5 metres for raster cell. The surface of the trend of the drainage network beginning was determined using the Local Polynomial Regression Fitting procedure from the stats package of the R language with the smoothing out parameter 0,3, that was set experimentally. Relative altitude was received by subtracting from the original surface the surface of the trend of the drainage network beginning.
Key words: geomorphometry, GIS, DEM, Grass, R, TAS, Pleistocene glaciations


Jana Svobodová, Pavel Tuček: Creation of DEM by kriging method and evaluation of the results
Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica, 9, 2009, 1, 53 - 60.
2 figs., 3 tabs., 7 refs.

The generated DEM is used for deriving values of various morphometric variables of relief; however, their values differ according to the parameters of interpolation methods used. An improperly selected and set interpolation method results in the creation of a DEM of low quality, which then results in the derivation of erroneous values of geomorphometric parameters. Errors in derived parameters are usually much more evident than in the original DEMs. This is further enhanced by the properties (configuration) of the real relief – plains, hilly lands, highlands and mountains (“relief” in a following text means the relief of the Earth's surface). It is evident that there is direct proportion between the relative relief segmentation and the examined inaccuracies – in hilly areas the inaccuracies are smaller than in mountainous areas. Any error in the DEM then generates an error in the application results where relief is one of the factors. Particularly the process of testing the kriging method as an interpolation method for the creation of DEMs of various types of relief - plains, hilly lands, highlands and mountains will be present under the terms of this article. Input data, which were used for the testing, were the layers with the altitudinal data of DMU25, which were obtained from the Department of geoinformatics at the Palacký University in Olomouc and the research grant MŠMT with the name “Dynamical Geovisualization in Critical Management” solved at the Institute of geography at the Masaryk University in Brno.        
Key words: interpolation, kriging, DEM, relief


Miroslav Žiak: Basic concept of proposed Avalanche Geographic Information System.
Geomorphologia Slovaca et Bohemica, 9, 2009, 1, 61 - 68.
2 figs., 5 tabs., 13 refs.

The proposed Avalanche Geographic Information System (AGIS) is a data storage system that can analyze information on avalanche research. The skeleton of most information systems are databases which are used to store information that can carry out a number of operations. Large databases such as the structure, indexing and access to stored data are managed by DBMS - Database Management System. Avalanche activity as the process can be accurately located on georelief; therefore we created a functional geodatabase in AGIS. Geodatabase provides a system for geographic information, but also works with traditional database structures, which are offered as the best way for the implementation of the AGIS. The structure of the Avalanche Geographic Information System consists of tables set up in the personal geodatabase and tables representing different layers of data. It seeks to create geodatabase having all the data obtained empirically and allocated geographically, which is highlighted as geographical information system. The entire information system is possible to apply to all endangered mountains with avalanche activity in future. System testing is underway on the model territory in the Malá Fatra Mts. In addition to the above system, tables are found supporting to the table containing specialized information. In our case, this table will be necessary for the preservation of data for avalanche research. One group will be set variable components and second relatively stable.
Key words: avalanche, avalanche geographic information system, GIS, geodatabase, logical model, weather, snow cover